 The JAMB syllabus for Physics 2022/2023 has been uploaded. The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board made this move to help students prepare for their forthcoming Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).

## Objectives of JAMB Syllabus for Physics

The JAMB syllabus for Physics aims to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination and to test candidates’ understanding, knowledge, and acquisition of the following areas of the subject:

• Maintain their interest in physics.
• Acquire physics-related attitudes that foster correctness, precision, and objectivity.
• Interpret physical events, laws, definitions, ideas, and other theories; (4) show the capacity to solve physics issues appropriately utilizing applicable theories and concepts.

## Topics Under JAMB Syllabus

The topics covered in the JAMB syllabus Physics are divided into five sections.

### Measurements and Units

• Area, Length, and volume: Metre rule, Venier calipers Micrometer Screw-gauge, measuring cylinder MassUnit of mass
• Use of simple beam balance
• Concept of beam balance
• TimeUnit of time
• Time-measuring devices
• Fundamental physical quantities
• Derived physical quantities and their units
• The combinations of fundamental quantities and the determination of their unit’s definition of dimensions
• Simple examples
• Limitations of experimental measurement accuracy of measuring instruments
• Simple estimation of errors
• Significant figures
• Standard form
• Measurement, position, distance, and displacementConcept of displacement
• The Distinction between distance and displacement
• Concept of position and coordinates
• Frame of reference

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Determine the units of Length, area, and volume.
• Use different measuring instruments.
• Determine regular and irregular bodies’ lengths, surface areas, and volume.
• Determine the unit of mass.
• Use simple beam balance, e.g., Buc hart’s and chemical balance.
• Determine the unit of time.
• Make use of different time-measuring devices.
• Associate the fundamental physical quantities to their units.
• Conclude on the units of derived physical quantities.
• Identify the dimensions of physical quantities.
• Make use of the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities.
• Test the homogeneity of an equation.
• Specify the accuracy of measuring instruments.
• Evaluate simple errors.
• Express measurements in standard form.
• Use strings, meter rulers, engineering calipers, vernier calipers, micrometers, and screw gauges.
• Note the degree of accuracy.
• Identify distance travel in a specified direction.
• Use a compass and protractor to locate points/directions.
• Cartesian systems to locate positions in the x-y plane.
• Plot the graph and draw inferences from the graph.

### Scalars and Vectors

• Definition of scalar and vector quantities.
• Examples of scalar and vector quantities.
• Relative velocity.
• The Resolution of vectors into two perpendicular directions, including graphical solution methods.

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Differentiate scalar and vector quantities.
• Provide examples of scalar and vector quantities.
• Identify the resultant of two or more vectors.
• Define relative velocity.
• Resolve vectors into two perpendicular components.
• Use graphical methods to solve vector problems.

### Motion

• Types of Motion: Oscillatory, Translational, Rotational, Random, and Spin.
• Relative Motion
• Impulse and Momentum
• Force-Time Graph
• The Conservation of Linear Momentum (Coefficient of Restitution Not Necessary)
• Motion in a Circle: Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration
• Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces.
• Applications
• Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.): Definition and Explanation of Simple Harmonic Motion
• Means of Systems That Execute S.H.M.
• Frequency, Period, and Amplitude of S.H.M.
• Velocity and Acceleration of S.H.M.
• The Simple Treatment of Energy Change in S.H.M
• Force Vibration and Resonance (Simple Treatment)
• Reasons for Motion
• Types of Force Contact
• Force Field
• Linear MotionSpeed, Velocity, and Acceleration
• Equations of Uniformly Accelerated Motion
• Motion Under Gravity
• Distance-Time Graph and Velocity Time Graph
• Instantaneous Velocity and Acceleration.
• Projectiles: maximum height and Calculation of Range, Time of Flight From the Ground.
• Projectile Motion applications
• Newton’s Laws of Motion: Inertia, Force Mass, and the relationship between Mass and Acceleration

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to :

• Identify different types of motion.
• Solve the numerical problem on the collinear motion.
• Identify Force as the cause of motion.
• Evaluate push and pull as forms of Force.
• Identify electric and magnetic attractions and gravitational pull as forms of field forces.
• Differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration.
• Deduce equations of uniformly accelerated motion.
• Solve problems of motion under gravity.
• Interpret the distance-time graph and velocity-time graph.
• Compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
• Evaluate expressions for the range, maximum height, and time of flight of projectiles.
• Solve problems involving projectile motion.
• Solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum.
• Interpretation of area under the force-time graph.
• Interpret Newton’s laws of motion.
• Compare inertia, mass, and Force.
• Deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration.
• Understand the law of conservation of linear momentum and application.
• Determine the expression for angular velocity, angular acceleration, and centripetal Force.
• Solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle.
• Establish the relationship between period and frequency.
• Analyze the energy changes occurring during S.H.M.
• Identify different types of forced vibration.
• Enumerate applications of resonance.

### Gravitational field

• Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.
• Gravitational Potential.
• Conservative and Non-conservative Fields.
• Acceleration Due to Gravity.
• Variation of G on the Earth’s Surface.
• Distinction Between Mass and Weight; Escape Velocity.
• Parking Orbit and Weightlessness.

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Determine the expression for gravitational Force between two bodies.
• Apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
• Provide examples of conservative and non-conservative fields.
• Conclude the expression for gravitational field potentials.
• Determine the causes of the Variation of g on the earth’s surface.
• Distinguish between mass and weight.
• Identify escape velocity

### Equilibrium of Forces

• Equilibrium of particles
• Equilibrium of coplanar forces
• Triangles and polygons of forces
• Lami’s theorem
• Principles of moments
• Moment of a force
• The Simple treatment and moment of a couple (torque)
• Applications
• Conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces
• The Resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions,
• Resultant and equilibrant
• Center of gravity and stability
• Stable, unstable, and neutral equilibrium

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Applications of the conditions for the equilibrium of coplanar forces to solve problems
• Make use of triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems.
• Use Lami’s theorem to solve problems.
• Analyze the principle of the moment of a force.
• Determine the moment of a force and couple.
• Describe some applications of the moment of a force.
• Applications of the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems
• Resolve forces into two perpendicular directions.
• Identify the resultant and equilibrant of forces.
• Differentiate between stable, unstable, and neutral equilibrium.

### Work, Energy, and Power

• Definition of work, energy, and power
• Forms of energy
• Conservation of energy
• Qualitative treatment between different forms of energy
• Interpretation of area under the force-distance curve
• Energy and society
• Sources of energy
• Differentiate between Renewable and non-renewable energy, e.g., coal, crude oil, etc.
• Uses of energy
• Energy and development
• Energy diversification
• Understand the environmental impact of energy, e.g., global warming, greenhouse effect, and spillage.
• Energy crises
• Conversion of energy
• Devices used in energy production. Dams and energy production location of dams
• Energy production
• Nuclear energy Solar collector
• Solar panel for energy supply

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Distinguish between work, energy, and power.
• Similarities of different forms of energy, giving examples.
• Apply the principle of conservation of energy.
• Analyze the transformation between different forms of energy.
• Interpret the area under the force-distance curve.
• Understand how to solve numerical problems in work, energy, and power.
• Itemize the sources of energy.
• Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable energy; examples should be included.
• Identify methods of the energy transition.
• Exemplify the importance of energy in the development of society.
• Analyze the effect of energy use on the environment.
• Determine the impact of energy on the environment.
• Determine energy sources that are friendly or hazardous to the environment.
• Identify energy uses in their immediate environment.
• Suggests ways of safe energy use.
• State different forms of energy conversion.

### Friction

• Static and dynamic friction
• Coefficient of limiting friction and its determination
• Reduction of friction
• Qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal velocity
• Stoke’s law

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to understand the following:

• Distinguish between static and dynamic friction.
• Identify the coefficient of limiting friction.
• Recommend ways by which friction can be reduced
• Examine factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity.
• The application of Stoke’s law

### Simple Machines

• Definition of simple machines
• Types of machines
• The mechanical advantage, velocity ratio, machines, and velocity ratio.

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Identify different types of simple machines
• Solve problems involving simple machines.

### Elasticity

• Elastic limit, breaking point, yield point, Hooke’s law, and Young’s modulus
• Understand Spring balance as a means for measuring Force as Work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings as work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings.

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Analyze force-extension curves
• Explain Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a material.
• Make use of spring balance to measure Force.
• Identify the work done in spring and elastic strings.

### Pressure

• Atmospheric PressureDefinition of atmospheric pressure
• Units of pressure (S.I.) units (Pa)
• Measurement of pressure
• Simple mercury barometer, aneroid barometer, and manometer
• Variation of pressure with height
• The use of a barometer as an altimeter
• Pressure in liquids relationship between pressure, depth, and density
• Transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle)
• Application

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Identify the S.I. units of pressure; (Pa)
• Identify pressure-measuring instruments
• Compare the Variation of pressure to height.
• Understand the use of a barometer as an altimeter.
•  Identify the relationship between pressure, depth, and density.
• Apply the principle of transmission of pressure in liquids to solve problems
• Examine and apply the principle of pressure in the liquid.

### Liquids At Rest

• Determination of the density of solids and liquids
• Definition of relative density
• Understand the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid.
• Archimedes’ principle and the law of floatation and applications, e.g., ships and hydrometers.

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Differentiate between density and relative density of substances.
• Examine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid.
• Apply Archimedes’ principle and the law of floatation to solve problems.

### Temperature and Its Measurement

• Concept of temperature
• Thermometric properties
• Calibration of thermometers
• Temperature scales -Celsius and Kelvin
• Types of thermometers
• The Conversion from one scale of temperature to another

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Determine thermometric properties of materials that are used for different thermometers.
• Calibrate thermometers
• Distinguish between temperature scales, e.g., Celsius and Kelvin.
• Relate between the different types of thermometers.
• Conversion of one scale of temperature to another

### Thermal Expansion

• Solids
• Definition and determination of volume, linear, and area expansivities
• The effects and applications, e.g., expansion in building strips and railway lines
• Relationship between different expansivities
• Liquids
• Volume expansivity
• Real and apparent expansivities
• Determination of volume expansivity
• Anomalous expansion of water

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Examine the linear and volume expansivities.
• The effects and applications of thermal expansivities
• Understand the relationship between different expansivities.
• Identify volume, apparent, and real expansivities of liquids.
• Analyze the anomalous expansion of water.

### Gas Laws

• Boyle’s law (isothermal process)
• Charles’ law (isobaric process)
• Pressure law (volumetric process
• Absolute zero temperature
• General gas equation
• Ideal gas equation Eg. Pv = nRT
• Van der waal gas

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Interpret the gas laws.
• Use the expression of these laws to solve numerical problems.
• Interpret the Van der waal equation for one mole of natural gas.

### Quantity of Heat

• Heat as a form of energy
• The definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids
• The determination of heat-specific heat capacity and the heat capacity of substances by basic methods, e.g., electrical method and method of mixtures

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Determine between heat capacity and specific heat capacity.
• Understand heat capacity and specific heat capacity using simple methods.
• Solve numerical problems

### Change of State

• Latent heat
• Specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization
• Melting, evaporation, and boiling
• Pressure and dissolved substances influence boiling and melting points.
• Application in appliances

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Distinguish between latent heat and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization.
• Differentiate between melting, evaporation, and boiling.
• Examine the effects of pressure and dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.
• Solve numerical problems

### Vapors

• Unsaturated and saturated vapors
• Relationship between saturated vapor pressure (S.V.P.) and boiling
• The determination of S.V.P. by barometer tube method
• Formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain
• The study of dew point, humidity, and relative humidity
• Hygrometry; the estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapors.
• Relate saturated vapor pressure to boiling point.
• Identify S.V.P. by barometer tube method.
• Distinguish between dew point, humidity, and relative humidity.
• Calculate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.
• Understand how to solve numerical problems.

### Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

• Molecular nature of matter atoms and molecules
• Molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, surface tension, diffusion, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact, etc
• Means and applications Kinetic Theory Assumptions of the kinetic theory
• Use the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Charles’ law, Boyle’s law, boiling, change in temperature, evaporation, melting, vapourization, etc.

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Differentiate between atoms and molecules.
• Use molecular theory to explain diffusion, Brownian motion, capillarity, adhesion, surface, tension, cohesion, and angle of contact.
• Examine the assumptions of kinetic theory.
• Evaluate theory, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law melting, boiling vaporization, the pressure exerted by gases, changes in temperature, evaporation, etc.

### Heat Transfer

• Conduction, convection, Conduction, and radiation as modes of heat transfer
• Temperature gradient, thermal conductivity, and heat flux
• The impact of the surface’s nature on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.
• The conductivities of common materials.
• Land and sea breeze

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Distinguish between Conduction, convection, and radiation as modes of heat transfer.
• Understand problems with temperature gradient, thermal conductivity, and heat flux;
• Understand the impacts of the surface’s nature on the energy it radiates and absorbs.
• Relate the conductivities of common materials.
• Relate the part of the working of the thermos flask.
• Differentiate between land and sea breeze.
• To analyze the principles of operating internal combustion jet engines, rockets

### Waves

• Production and Propagation
• Wave motion
• Vibrating systems as a source of waves
• Waves as a mode of energy transfer
• The difference between particle motion and wave motion
• Relationship between frequency, wave velocity, and wave velocity V = f λ, phase difference, wave number, and wave vector
• Progressive wave equation classification
• Types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves
• Longitudinal and transverse waves
• Stationary and progressive waves
• Examples and means of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings, and the ripple tank.
• Characteristics/Properties
• Plane Polarization of waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, and, e.g., interference beats, doppler effects (qualitative treatment only).

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Understand wave motion
• Determine vibrating systems as sources of waves.
• Make use of waves as a mode of energy transfer.
• The distinctions between particle motion and wave motion
• Compare frequency and wave length to wave velocity.
• Determine the phase difference, wave number, and wave vector.
• Make use of the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters.
• Differentiate between mechanical and electromagnetic waves.
• Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves.
• Differentiate between stationary and progressive waves
• Understand the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings, and the ripple tank.
• Distinguish between reflection, refraction, diffraction, and plane polarization of waves.
• Analyze the principle of superposition of waves.
• Understand the numerical problems on waves.
• Understand the phenomenon of beat, beat frequency, and uses
• Explain the Doppler effect of sound and application.

### Propagation of Sound Waves

• The necessity for a material medium
• Evaluate the speed of sound in solids, liquids, and air.
• The reflection of sound, echoes, reverberation, and their applications
• Disadvantages of echoes and reverberations

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Identify the need for a material medium in the propagation of sound waves.
• Relationship between the speed of sound in solids, liquids, and air
• Relationship between the effects of temperature and pressure on the speed of sound in air
• Understand how to solve problems with echoes, reverberation, and speed.
• Understand the problems of echo, reverberation, and speed of sound.

### Characteristics of Sound Waves

• Noise and musical notes
• The pitch, quality, intensity, and loudness and their application to musical instruments
• Understanding the simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns
• The Acoustic examples of resonance
• The frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes about their lengths

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Differentiate between noise and musical notes.
• Analyze the quality, pitch, intensity, and loudness of sound notes.
• Understand the application of (ii) above in constructing musical instruments.
• Evaluate overtones by vibrating strings and air columns.
• List the acoustical examples of resonance.
• Identify the frequencies of notes emitted by air columns in open and closed pipes about their lengths.

### Light Energy

• The sources of Light
• Natural and artificial sources of Light
• Luminous and non-luminous objects
• Propagation of Light
• Speed, frequency, and wavelength of Light
• Formation of shadows and eclipse
• The pin-hole camera

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Compare the artificial and natural sources of Light.
• Differentiate between luminous and non-luminous objects.
• Compare the frequency, speed, and wavelength of Light.
• Evaluate the formation of shadows and eclipses.
• Understand problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera.

### Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces

• Laws of reflection
• Application of reflection of Light
• How are images by plane, concave, and convex mirrors and ray diagrams formed?
• Use of the mirror formula (v) linear magnification

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Define the laws of reflection.
• Interpret the formation of images by plane, concave, and convex mirrors.
• Application of the mirror formula to solve optical problems
• Identify the linear magnification.
• The application of the laws of reflection of Light to the working of periscope, sextant, and kaleidoscope

### Refraction of Light Through Plane and Curved Surfaces

• The explanation of refraction in terms of the velocity of Light in the media.
•  Laws of refraction
•  Definition of the refractive index of a medium
•  Identification of the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law
•  The real and apparent depth and lateral displacement
•  Critical angle and total internal reflection
•  Glass Prism
•  Use of the minimum deviation formula (ii) type of lenses
•  Use of lens formula and Newton’s formula (F22 = ab)
•  Magnification

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Interpret the laws of reflection
• Evaluate the formation of images by plane, concave, and convex mirrors.
• Application of the mirror formula to solve optical problems
• Determine the linear magnification.
• Application of the laws of reflection of Light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope, and sextant
• Interpret the laws of reflection.
• Identify the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law.
• Identify the refractive index using the principle of real and apparent depth.
• Identification of the conditions necessary for total internal reflection
• Examine the use of a periscope, prism, binoculars, and optical fiber.
• Application of the principles of total internal reflection to the formation of a mirage
• Make use of lens formulas and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems.
• Determine the magnification of an image.
• Understand the refractive index of a glass prism using the minimum deviation formula.

### Optical Instruments

• The principles of microscopes, cameras, telescopes, projectors, and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required)
• Power of a lens
• Angular magnification
• Near and far points
• Sight defects and their corrections

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Application of the principles of operation of optical instruments to solve problems
•  Differentiate between the human eye and the cameras
•  Calculate the power of a lens
•  Evaluate the angular magnification of optical instruments
•  Determine the near and far points
•  Detect sight defects and their corrections

### Dispersion of Light and colors

• Understand the dispersion of white Light by a triangular prism
•  Production of pure spectrum
•  Color mixing by addition and subtraction
•  Color of objects and color filters
•  Rainbow
•  Electromagnetic spectrum
•  Explanation of sources and uses of various types of radiation

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Identify primary colors and obtain secondary colors by mixing
•  Understand the formation of rainbow
•  Reduces why objects have colors
•  Compare the expression for gravitational Force between two bodies
•  Apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation
•  Analyse colors using color filters
•  Analyze the electromagnetic spectrum about their wavelengths, sources, and detection, and uses

### Electrostatics

• Existence of positive and negative charges in a matter
• The Charging of a body by friction, contact, and induction
• Electroscope
• The Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric field, and potential
• Electric field intensity and potential difference
• Electric discharge and lightning

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Identify charges
• Examine the uses of an electroscope.
• Application of Coulomb’s square law of electrostatics to solve problems
• Conclude on expressions for electric field intensity and potential difference.
• Determination of electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges
• Evaluate the distribution of charges on a conductor and how it is used in lightning conductors.

### Capacitors

• Types and functions of capacitors
• Parallel plate capacitors
• The capacitance of a capacitor
• Compare capacitance, area separation of plates, and medium between the plates
• Capacitors in series and parallel
• Energy stored in a capacitor

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Determine the uses of capacitors
•  Analyse parallel plate capacitors
•  Determine the capacitance of a capacitor
•  Analyze the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor
•  Solve problems involving the arrangement of capacitors
•  Determine the energy stored in capacitors

### Electric Cells

• Simple voltaic cells and their defects
• Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
• Maintenance of cells and batteries (detailed treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required)
• Arrangement of cells
• The efficiency of a cell

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Identification of the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their correction
• Compare different types of cells, including solar cells
• The relationship between the advantages of lead-acid and Nickel iron accumulators
• Solve problems involving series and parallel combinations of cells

### Current Electricity

• The electromagnetic Force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, cell’s internal resistance, and lost Volt.
• Ohm’s law.
• Measurement of resistance.
• Meter bridge.
• Resistance in series and parallel and their combination.
• The potentiometer method of measuring a cell’s emf, current and internal resistance.
• Electrical networks.

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Differentiate between emf, p.d., the current, and internal resistance of a cell
• Apply Ohm’s law to solve problems.
• Use a meter bridge to calculate the resistance
• The computed effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangements of resistors
• Identify the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor.
• Measure emf. The current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer
• Identify the advantages of the potentiometer.
• Apply Kirchoff’s law in electrical networks.

### Electrical Energy and Power

• Concepts of electrical energy and power
• Commercial unit of electric energy and power
• Electric power transmission
• Heating effects of electric current
• Electrical wiring of houses
• Use of fuses

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Applications of the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems
• Power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer.
• Identify the heating effects of current and its uses
• Determination of the advantages of parallel arrangement over series
• Determine the fuse rating

### Magnets and Magnetic Fields

• Natural and artificial magnets
• Magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
• Methods of making magnets and demagnetization
• Concept of magnetic field
• The magnetic field of a permanent magnet
• Magnetic field around a straight current-carrying conductor, circular wire, and solenoid
• Properties of the earth’s magnetic field; north and south poles, magnetic meridian, and angle of dip and declination
• Flux and flux density
• The Variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth’s surface
• Applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration

#### Objectives

Participants should be able to:

• Give examples of natural and artificial magnets
• Distinguish between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
• Determination of the various methods of making magnets and demagnetizing magnets
• Determination of how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism
• Identification of the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets are placed together pole to pole.
• Determine the flux of a current-carrying conductor, circular wire, and solenoid, including the polarity of the solenoid.
• Identification of the flux pattern of a magnet placed in the earth’s magnetic fields;
• Identification of the magnetic elements of the earth’s flux
• Determine the Variation of the earth’s magnetic field on the earth’s surface.
• Evaluate the applications of the earth’s magnetic field.

### Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

• The Quantitative treatment of Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors
• Understanding the Force on a charge moving in a magnetic field
•  The DC motor
•  Electromagnets
•  Carbon microphone
•  Moving coil and moving iron instruments
•  Conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeters using shunts and multipliers
•  Sensitivity of a galvanometer

### Electromagnetic Induction

• Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction
• Factors affecting induced emf
• Lenz’s law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy
• A.C. and D.C. generators
• Transformers
•  The induction coil InductanceExplanation of inductance
•   Unit of inductance
•   Energy stored in an inductor
•   Application/uses of inductors
•   Eddy Current
•   Reduction of eddy current
•   Applications of eddy current

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction
•  Identify factors affecting induced emf
•  Recognize how Lenz’s law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy
•  Interpret the diagrammatic setup of A. C. generators
•  Identify the types of transformers
•  Examine principles of operation of transformers
•  Assess the functions of an induction coil
•  Conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil
•  Interpret the inductance of an inductor
•  Recognize units of inductance
•  Understand the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement.
•  Deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor
•  Examine the applications of inductors
•  Determination of the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced
•  Identification of ways by which eddy currents can be used

### Simple A. C. Circuits

• Explanation of a.c. current and voltage
•  Peak and r.m.s. values
•  A.C. source connected to a resistor
•  A.c source connected to a capacitor- capacitive reactance
•  A.c source connected to an inductor inductive reactance
•  Series R-L-C circuits
•  Vector diagram, phase angle, and power factor
•  Resistance and impedance
•  Effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
•  Resonance and resonance frequency

#### Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

• Identify the AC Current and D.C. voltage
•  Distinguish between the peak and r.m.s. Values of a.c.
•  Identify the phase difference between current and voltage
•  Interpret series R-L-C circuits
•  Analyse vector diagrams
•  Calculate the effective voltage, reactance, and impedance
•  Understand the condition by which the circuit is at resonance
•  Determine the resonant frequency of the R-L-C arrangement
•  Identify the instantaneous power, average power, and the power factor in a. c. circuits

### Conduction of Electricity

Conduction of Electricity through the following means:

• LiquidsElectrolytes and non-electrolyte
•  Concept of electrolysis
•  Apply the electrolysis, e.g., electroplating, calibration of ammeter, etc.
•  GasesDischarge through gases (qualitative treatment only)
•  Application of Conduction of electricity through gases

### Elementary Modern Physics

• Models of the atom and their limitations
•   Elementary structure of the atom
•   Energy levels and spectra
•   Thermionic and photoelectric emissions
•   Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
•   Applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects
•   The simple method of production of x-rays
•   Understand the properties and applications of alpha, beta, and gamma rays
•   Half-life and decay constant
•   Simple ideas of the production of energy by fusion and fission
•   The binding energy, mass defect, and Einstein’s Energy Equation
•   Wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
•   Electron diffraction
•   The uncertainty principle

### Introductory Electronics

• The Distinction between metals, semiconductors, and insulators (elementary knowledge of band gap is required)
•   Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
•   The Uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification
•   n-type and p-type semiconductors
•   Elementary knowledge of diodes and transistors

## Conclusion

The JAMB syllabus for Physics is important as it helps you focus on topics to read as you prepare for the forthcoming JAMB exams.

99% of the questions set during the examinations will not be guaranteed to be obtained from the syllabus, but you will surely find it very helpful.